A. In and . India, laws based on the Veda, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, condemned usury as a major sin. ii See Ph, 2009.

J. Iii and . Ferry, ) was a French statesman and republican, promoter of laicism. iv ECHR, Refah partisi v. Turkey, Feb. 13, 2003. v For the French literature on the subject, see Association française de philosophie du droit, Droit et religion, Archives de philosophie du droit, vol.38, pp.1832-1893, 1993.

P. Messner and . Prélot, Litec, 2003; see also Droit et religion Faculté de droit et des sciences politiques, Centre d'étude des droits du monde arabe, CEDROMA éd : Bruxelles, Bruylant, 2003. I n the U.S., see the work of the Center for the Study of Law and Religion at Emory law school

V. J. Geburtstag, C. H. Verlag, and M. Beck, Éthique et droit des affaires 17 ; et surtout Ph Le Tourneau (dans l'ordre chronologique), notamment La Vision chrétienne de l'entreprise, in Exigences chrétiennes et droit de l'entreprise, Téqui et s. ; Le Chrétien et l'entreprise, in Un Avenir chrétien pour l'Europe, Fayard et s. ; La Rencontre du management et du discours chrétien sur l'entreprise, in Histoire, gestion et management et s.; Existe-t-il une morale des affaires ? et s.; L'Éthique des contrats internationaux, in Centre de recherches en éthique économique, Éthique des affaires : de l'éthique de l'entrepreneur au droit des affaires, Librairie de l'Univ. d'Aix-en-Provence, 1997, p. 223 et s. vii In Europe, religion is an individual belief. But if one is thinking of " religious ideas, " (differing from ideology) that shape convictions and national identity, then religion has certainly still a strong impact on law. See for instance President Sarkozy and the Christian identity of France, Qualités humaines et droit des affaires Privatrecht in Europa ? Vielfalt, Kollision, Kooperation, Festchrift für Hans Jürgen Sonnenberger zum 70 Centre de droit des affaires, La Morale et le droit des affaires, Montchrestien finance islamique : l'autre finance, pp.53-61, 1987.

M. Ariff and M. , ix Rule 100 reads as follow: " he shall write down the interest on the money (?) and he shall make returns to his merchant Les nouveaux Fragments du Code de Hammourabi sur le prêt à intérêt et les sociétés Aristotle also added that " the most hated sort (of wealth getting) and with the greatest reason, is usury, which makes a gain out of money itself and not from the natural object of it. For money was intended to be used in exchange but not to increase at interest. And this term interest, which means the birth of money from money is applied to the breeding of money because the offspring resembles the parent, xi Enacted 342 B.C. by plebeian consul L. Genucius, the Genucia Law prohibited loans which carry interest. It also declared that same office should not be held twice within ten years nor two offices at once, also that both consuls might be plebeians. xii See E. Cuq, supra, p.14, 1258.

. Xiii-félix-gaffiot, H. Dictionnaire-latin-français, T. F. Divine, and S. J. , Réba is the corresponding Persian term, Riba being the Arabic term, and Ribbit the Hebrew one Interest: An Historical and Analytical Study in Economics and Modern Ethics, Milwaukee: The Marquette University Press, 1959, p. 96. xv One can find this third meaning of " usury " in the " Social Code " which is a social synthesis of the Catholic Church doctrine, 1934.