S. As-we, But it seems to imply the promotion for a smooth, polished appearance, where poverty has to be hidden, so called " minor " behaviours to be denied, and a model pattern has to be followed. As we saw, wenming involves morality, and is used to educate and to regulate

. So, let's try to answer my very first question: is it appropriate to translate wenming by " civilisation

. Well, civilisation " as a levelling process of unification, I would say yes As for " civilized " and " polite " , since English words " politeness " , " polite " and " polish " are all sharing the same etymological origin, the latin word polire, for make smooth, I would say yes, wenming means to " be polite " , that is to say " be polished " . This is even more obvious in French where there is only one word for the two meanings: " poli