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Inférence et décomposition modale de réseaux dynamiques en neurosciences

Gaëtan Frusque 1, 2
2 DANTE - Dynamic Networks : Temporal and Structural Capture Approach
Inria Grenoble - Rhône-Alpes, LIP - Laboratoire de l'Informatique du Parallélisme, IXXI - Institut Rhône-Alpin des systèmes complexes
Abstract : Dynamic graphs make it possible to understand the evolution of complex systems evolving over time. This type of graph has recently received considerable attention. However, there is no consensus on how to infer and study these graphs. In this thesis, we propose specific methods for dynamical graph analysis. A dynamical graph can be seen as a succession of complete graphs sharing the same nodes, but with the weights associated with each link changing over time. The proposed methods can have applications in neuroscience or in the study of social networks such as Twitter and Facebook for example. The issue of this thesis is epilepsy, one of the most common neurological diseases in the world affecting around 1% of the population.The first part concerns the inference of dynamical graph from neurophysiological signals. To assess the similarity between each pairs of signals, in order to make the graph, we use measures of functional connectivity. The comparison of these measurements is therefore of great interest to understand the characteristics of the resulting graphs. We then compare functional connectivity measurements involving the instantaneous phase and amplitude of the signals. We are particularly interested in a measure called Phase-Locking-Value (PLV) which quantifies the phase synchrony between two signals. We then propose, in order to infer robust and interpretable dynamic graphs, two new indexes that are conditioned and regularized PLV. The second part concerns tools for dynamical graphs decompositions. The objective is to propose a semi-automatic method in order to characterize the most important patterns in the pathological network from several seizures of the same patient. First, we consider seizures that have similar durations and temporal evolutions. In this case the data can be conveniently represented as a tensor. A specific tensor decomposition is then applied. Secondly, we consider seizures that have heterogeneous durations. Several strategies are proposed and compared. These are methods which, in addition to extracting the characteristic subgraphs common to all the seizures, make it possible to observe their temporal activation profiles specific to each seizures. Finally, the selected method is used for a clinical application. The obtained decompositions are compared to the visual interpretation of the clinician. As a whole, we found that activated subgraphs corresponded to brain regions involved during the course of the seizures and their time course were highly consistent with classical visual interpretation.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, February 3, 2021 - 4:07:12 PM
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Gaëtan Frusque. Inférence et décomposition modale de réseaux dynamiques en neurosciences. Traitement du signal et de l'image [eess.SP]. Université de Lyon, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020LYSEN080⟩. ⟨tel-03125330v2⟩

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